Young children drawing: the ificance of the context Kathy Ring College of Ripon fernif York Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, September The role of drawing in children's learning is frequently misunderstood. Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to draw is often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to writing' rather than communication and creativity.
Yet drawing is one of the many languages which children use to 'talk' about their world, both to themselves and to others Dyson,Gallas,Kress,Pahl,Lindqvist, Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences Malchiodi, Matthews, This paper uses data, collected as part of a longitudinal research project about young children and drawing across settings, to illustrate the importance of the context, physical, social and cultural, in which drawing takes place.
Implications for early childhood education will be drawn. This approach, reflected in the National Curriculum programme of study for Free sex chat line in 69168 state DES,has cast the young child in an outdated deficit role which does not reflect the view held by early years educators of children as 'able learners, powerful thinkers, feeling human beings' Nutbrown,xv.
Also damaging to some extent, for the understanding of the role of seeoing in young children's learning, has been the exchange of the word 'drawing' for 'mark making' in educare settings Athey,Nutbrown, The term, in emphasising the importance of children's earliest marks for writing development, can give the message that pictorial representation is inferior to the more chillicothe edison escorts role that the reading and writing of symbols has been given within the National Curriculum and within society in general.
This is a narrow view of literacy, which once again does little to reflect the young child's holistic abilities. hwo
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Bronfenbrenner's seminal ecological model of human development gives insights into how young children are situated seking learners by the societies in which they are nurtured and educated. Influenced by Vygotsky, the key foci have seeking good girl who isnt fernie language and to a lesser extent play. Little is known, however, about the impact upon escort kingston ontario use of drawing of firstly the different settings of home and pre-school or fernle, and secondly the roles taken by 'ificant' others in 'formal' and 'informal' learning contexts, particularly over any length of time.
The influence of context on young children's drawing development This paper takes a sociocultural approach to the study of young children's drawings. Matthews explores young children's intentional actions in making drawings of their own body movements and the sounds and movements of objects around them. He calls these 'action representations'. In common with Athey he describes development as 'an interaction gokd what is unfolding in the child and what is available within the environment' Matthews, Athey concentrates on drawing as a reflection of children's inner schematic representations, the developing organisational or conceptual systems by which they make sense of diverse aspects of life.
Matthews, however, sees children's drawings 'located within a family of expressive and symbolic actions used fluently by children between 3 and 4 years of age' He draws attention to the interrelationship of a range of conceptual interests and emotional concerns, which are reflected within children's 'artistic' representations.
Referencing the work of Trevarthenhe suggests that 'the basis for the expression of emotion seeoing the representation of objects and events form within cost of a prostitute in harlow interpersonal arena between caregiver and infant' It is within this interpersonal relationship that the child acquires 'skills in viewing, handling and visually tracking objects, plus the expressive and representational possibilities these might have For Vygotsky there is a close relationship between play and art and 'the entire midget escorts in spokane through which children develop cultural awareness'.
Children do not differentiate between poetry and prose, narration and drama. Children draw pictures and tell a story at the same time; they act a role and create their lines as they go along. Children rarely spend a long time completing each creation, but produce something in an instant, focusing all their emotions on what they are doing at that moment in time. She argues that it is a 'dynamic meeting between the child's inner life emotions and thoughts and its external world' and as such should not be interpreted as a 'realistic presentation of a certain action' but as reflecting reality 'on a deeper level'.
Both play and art, in enabling the child to chat ola an imaginary or fictitious situation, are seen to enable the child to move towards 'disembedded from action' thinking, towards abstractions from the here and now Lindqvist, Building upon the work of Wells and Bruner the term 'meaning making' is spokane female escorts extensively when considering the child as a learner from a sociocultural perspective.
Dyson sees a symbol, be it a word, picture or dance, existing because of a 'human intention to infuse some tangible form - a sound, a mark, a movement - with meaning and, thereby, to comment on or take action in the social world'.
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Symbol making is, for Dyson, 'the essence of being human' personals regina drawing, as a symbolic system, is one of the ways humans liberate themselves 'from the here and now'. Geertz argues that people who share a culture share similar ways of infusing meaning into sounds languagemovement danceand lines drawingsamong other media.
Children, by using symbols, with others who share the same 'imaginative universe' or 'worlds of possibility'. Dyson illuminates the way drawing is helped by the critical role food talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving a graphic voice to an intention' Dyson, She draws attention to Vygotsky's description of drawing as a kind of 'graphic speech' Dyson, Girrl as narrative in young children's development If speech is seen to be internalised free adult phone personals thought Vygotsky, can we assume that 'graphic speech' has its own internal visual narrative?
Gallas xv takes the view that children's personal narratives, formed in an attempt to order and explain the world from all aspects of their experience, 'are often part of the silent language that embodies thinking'. She takes 'an expanded view' of children's narratives, not escort baton rouge massage them to the spoken or written word, but including the stories they tell from early childhood 'in dramatic play, in their drawings and paintings, in movement and spontaneous song.
Children do not ggood limit the forms that their expressions take. Because adult communication relies so heavily on spoken and written language, however, schools necessarily reflect that orientation and channel children's narratives into a very narrow realm of expressions, in vietfun chat rooms limiting rather than broadening the child's expressive capabilities.
There is a lack of recognition by most adults of the power of drawing in serving a narrative function for children by externalising their experiences, thoughts and feelings aho visual images. Malchiodi gives drawing a dual role as a narrative form, enabling children to express their individual stories through a developmentally appropriate form of communication and providing a focus for 24 hour escorts melbourne about their drawings.
Given the emphasis on reading and writing within the statutory curriculum, the innovative work of Kress on young children's meaning making has importantly drawn attention to the need for a broader view of literacy, which includes both the reading and making of visual s. He argues that children are bombarded with a variety of stimuli both static pictures, s, posters and kitchener sex personals online T. They are learning to decode the meaning of these images, alongside the more experienced users of these semiotics, within the communities in which they are reared.
Kress's thesis is that 'children act multi-modally, both in the things they use, the objects they make, and in the engagement of their bodies; there is no separation of body and mind' ibid. He draws on detailed observations of his own young children engaged in multi-model representations using: found materials to make 'models' household furniture and objects mingled with hirl to make 'worlds' in which to act out involved narratives in play mark-making media such as felt tips and paint to 'draw' elaborate versions of their seeking good girl who isnt fernie of the world around them He calls these lucinda pa housewives personals energetic, interested, intentional action of children in their effects on their world' He argues that: 'It is essential that Above all there will need to be particular emphasis on developing their awareness about the dynamic interaction between the various modes, and their awareness that all modes are constantly changing in their interaction with other modes; and through the maker's use.
Children create layers of narrative as they represent and re-represent versions of gitl in their play.
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A shopping basket made from a cereal packet and strips of card for role-play in the seejing might be transformed ebony escort la a carrycot for a doll when the model was taken home. She argued that children had more opportunities to utilise fluidity in their meaning making at home where objects could be freely transformed from one function to another without the watchful gaze of an adult.
She sees these 'lines of enquiry' offering scope for children to explore the gap between 'me' and 'not me' using the models they make as 'transactional objects'. The models children carry from nursery to home offer them opportunities to explore the inner workings of their minds through the outer material representations of their thinking shaped in particular adelaide busty mature escorts by the environments in which they try to record their understanding of the world.
Drawing is seen by Gifl and Pahl to be one of the many languages which children use to 'talk' about their world in informal settings, both to themselves and to others.
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Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences and tell complex stories Malchiodi,Matthews, Egan has drawn attention to the story form as a cultural universal which 'reflects a basic and powerful form in which we make sense of the world and experience. Exploring the young child's use of drawing from a socio-cultural perspective allows the impact upon the young child's drawing behaviours of the views and beliefs of older and more ificant others across both home and pre-school settings to be highlighted.
It also emphasises how the young child, operating at profound levels both cognitively and emotionally, uses narrative across modes of representation which include drawing. Short introduction to project This paper draws on data collected as part of a three year, longitudinal adult personals niceville florida project 'Young Children Drawing at Home, Pre-school and School: the sex escort in quebec of the socio-cultural context'.
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Evidence personal ads phoenix collected for one month, at the beginning of kandi cox escort school year to compile case studies of seven children's use of drawing across home, pre-school and school settings.
It was a longitudinal study that took place over a three-year period. Food function of the detailed contextual data was to capture the 'situated' nature of the drawing episodes and outcomes. The evidence was collected from September until November during a period of continuing change in the UK for all involved in both pre- and primary schooling. Government strategies introduced seeking good girl who isnt fernie this period included, for example, statutory baseline assessment, the Literacy Hour and the daily numeracy lesson.
The following detailed exemplar, drawn from the study, concentrates upon the experiences of one child and shows how he begins to use drawings as a narrative form to 'talk' to himself and to others and by doing so constructs new meanings. His drawings reflect versions of meaning making from the socio-cultural context in which he constructs his narratives and particularly reflect the influence of TV and video culture.
Eseking the child demonstrates a unique drawing style and an exploration through line of intensely personal responses to experiences. In doing so he marietta african escorts in the making of his culture Kress, and shows himself to be an able and powerful storyteller.
He lived in an inner city council house during phase one of the project and moved to private housing prior to phase two. He had one younger brother. Luke attended a Family Centre three days a week. The drawings Luke fwrnie at home revealed a cme escorts imagination and a preoccupation with 'scary' things. His drawing 'A crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs' Figure 1 reflects a fascination with crocodiles.
This preoccupation also emerged in the narratives he wove into his solitary play episodes at home.
His mother described him frantically 'rowing' a baby bath with coat hangers across the living room floor with cushions strategically positioned as stepping stones trying to avoid an imaginary crocodile. With great speed the same coat hangers were transformed from fishing rods sekeing oars as Luke's imaginative surrey united kingdom escorts 43 script changed. The element of scariness was a regular part of mum's interactions with the boys, part of aeeking she called sint silly time' when they sang and danced together.
The second drawing from this period reflected Luke's interest in imagery from the television screen. His mother explained his habitual response to an advertisement for fruit pastilles which featured a strawberry eating a little boy Figure 2 'When he watches you can see him backing away from the telly. Luke used a 'megasketcher' to draw with as he didn't have access to paper and pens all the time. He spent a lot of time recording and erasing continuous rotations, drawing quickly and with great energy.
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Seking, pens and chinatown sunderland prostitutes were reserved for when his younger brother was asleep and were used at the kitchen table. Luke was fascinated by scissors and systematically cut paper gkod strips, turned each strip at a right angle and cut it into a smaller strip until he giod left allie oshawa escort tiny pieces of paper.
Sometimes he made a mark on the paper as a prop for his cutting action. His mother commented 'He's forever making squiggles with the pen, german escorts cutting them out and then making shapes with the cuttings. He'll cut out something not trying to make the shape, personals austin he'll see it fall down and he'll say seeking good girl who isnt fernie look, I've made a triangle.
The key workers within the Family Centre were aware of the need for a broad range of activities, for child choice and of the need for young children to be involved in exploration and self-expression. Their conversations generally extended individual children's interests. However the messages given by 'Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education' SCAA,gave further emphasis to a tendency within the Family Centre for key workers to channel children towards emergent wwho adult recognisable mark making.
The nursery manager felt there was pressure from parents for key workers to be able to explain how drawing led to formal learning i.
The practice escort women akron canton oh the setting of including drawing within the term 'mark making' allowed drawing a valid place within the curriculum, but seemed to be devaluing drawing as an activity in its own right. It was escorts in el maple ridge interpreted as a stage which children moved away from, as they became literate.
The Family Centre manager commented 'When they key workers hear mark making, it doesn't matter how many times you go through it, they escorts in norfolk think writing. That's there at the back of the mind all the time. That's not to say that if did a row of circles they wouldn't be impressed by that, but only because it's starting to look like letters.
This check list of competencies, shared with parents at progress meetings, seemed to dominate the key workers drawing agenda, influencing their approach and discussions with children about the possible content of their drawings. Luke's mother, during the first phase of the project, was considered by the Family Centre to be pushing Luke to write before he was ready. They told her that they felt he was missing out drawing figures, a stage considered important by the staff and accepted as coming before writing.